Risk and Protective Factors of Gambling Among Young Adults: Analysis of the Manitoba Longitudinal Study of Young Adults (MLSYA) Data


Investigators Dr. Sherry Stewart, Dalhousie University
Dr. Sean Mackinnon, Dalhousie University
Research Priority Explore what risk and protective factors (individual, social, environmental) influence the movement back and forth between no risk and problem gambling risk levels.
Funding Focused Research ($57,500)
Project Status Completed


Project Summary

Our research examines several questions that focus on two risk/protective factors from the MLSYA database -- personality and emotional disorder symptoms -- in terms of their longitudinal associations with transitions or stability in problem gambling over time among young adults. Our study will extend research in other areas of addictive behavior risk in young people which has shown personality to impact growth in substance use (e.g., Mackie, Castellanos-Ryan, & Conrod, 2011). While it is well established that high neuroticism, low conscientiousness, and high impulsivity are characteristic of individuals with pathological gambling, little longitudinal work has focused on whether these characteristics lead to escalations in gambling/problem gambling over time.

We will utilize data collected using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11; Patton, Stanford, & Barratt, 1995) at waves 2 and 4; the Composite International Diagnostic Interview - Short Form (CIDI-SF; Walters, Kessler, Nelson, & Mroczek, 2002) for assessing the diagnostic criteria for PG and certain emotional disorders at waves 1 through 4; and data from the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1992) which assessed relations of personality and gambling risk at waves 1 and 3.  Additionally, the proposed research models the mechanism through which these variables may influence problem gambling – through gambling motives. The project will also involve a psychometric validation of the Gambling Motives Questionnaires (GMQ; Stewart & Zack, 1998) in young adults, using data from the fourth wave of the MLSYA.  Finally, we will examine scores from waves 1-4 on the Canadian Problem Gambling Index (CPGI; Ferris & Wynne, 2001) which assesses levels of gambling involvement and gambling problems.

Findings from this study will help to gain a better understanding of risk/protective factors associated with problem gambling among young adults, which can be useful in future prevention and treatment approaches.

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        World Health Organization’s Composite International Diagnostic Interview
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Lambe, L., Mackinnon, S.P. & Stewart, S.H. (2015). Validation of the Gambling
          Motives Questionnaire in Emerging Adults. Journal of Gambling Studies, 
          31(3), 867-885. doi:10.1007/s10899-014-9467-0

Chinneck, A., Mackinnon, S.P. & Stewart, S.H. (2016). Investigating Possible
         Reciprocal Relations Between Depressive and Problem Gambling
         Symptoms in Emerging Adults. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 61(2),
         93-101. doi:10.1177/0706743715625934 

Mackinnon, S.P., Lambe, L. & Stewart, S.H. (2016). Relations of Five-Factor
          Personality Domains to Gambling Motives in Emerging Adult Gamblers:
          A Longitudinal Study. Journal of Gambling Issues (34),179-200. 


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